History of the Laboratory of Parasitology

The Laboratory of Parasitology was created in 2006 by merging two laboratories, general parasitology (supervisor D. M. Zhatkanbaeva) and parasitocenology and malacology (supervisor B. Shaykenov), which, in turn, at different times united 6 former parasitological laboratories.

The Laboratory of Parasitology was created in 2006 by merging two laboratories, General Parasitology (supervisor D.M. Zhatkanbaeva) and Parasitocenology and Malacology (supervisor B.Sh. Shaikenov), which, in their turn, at different times merged 6 former parasitological laboratories: Environmental Parasitology (supervisor E.A. Gvozdev (supervisor S.N. Boev), Environmental Parasitology (supervisor A.A. Tselischeva (supervisor S.K. Svanov), Environmental Parasitology and Malacology (supervisor S.N. Boev). E. V. Gvozdev), helminthology (supervised by S. N. Boev), protozology (supervised by A. A. Tselischev, S. K. Svanbaev), tissue protozoa (supervised by I. G. Galuso, S. M. Pak), arachnoentomology (parasitic arthropods) (supervised by T. N. Doszhanov), functional morphology of invertebrate animals (supervised by V. J. Panin). The study of systematics, fauna, distribution, ecological characteristics of different groups of parasites, their harm to wild and farm animals and humans and the development of measures to prevent infestation, which began in the mid-40s, is a remarkable milestone in the history of research on parasitology in Kazakhstan.

The laboratory conducts modern research on systematics, taxonomy, phylogeny, and ontogeny of helminths and some groups of protozoa. Much attention is paid to finding out the ways of circulation of parasites, including pathogens of dangerous diseases (parasitosis) of humans and animals in nature. A significant place in the research is given to the study of life cycles of protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, nematodes. The biological basis for the prevention of parasitosis of agricultural and some wild animals is being developed. The study of invertebrates – crustaceans, mollusks, insects as intermediate hosts of parasites is of great importance. Particular attention is paid to the study of natural focal parasitosis – alveolar echinococcosis, tricholosis, opisthorchiasis, echinstomatosis, diplostomiasis, etc. Current parasitological studies are clearly linked to specific aquatic and terrestrial biocenoses, different landscape-climatic ecosystems.

This necessarily takes into account the methods of agricultural production in modern conditions, changes in the state of pastures, due to the increased burden of grazing around the villages.

In the new period of research, the laboratory’s task is to clarify the role of parasites in the functioning of biocenoses and to change the theoretical basis for assessing parasites and parasitism as part of a unified system of the organic matter cycle. In this regard, in recent years, the efforts of the laboratory staff are aimed at elucidating the structure of the parasite fauna and ecologo-biological features of interactions between parasites and hosts, the influence of parasites on the dynamics of animal populations in model terrestrial and aquatic biocenoses, identification of zoonotic pathogens and development of preventive measures for invasive diseases in humans and animals.

The Laboratory of Ecological Parasitology (originally it was called Laboratory of Fish and Bird Parasites) exists since 1944 when it was founded by V. A. Dogel, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic with the aim of studying parasites of fish, birds, and commercially important mammals. For the first two years the Laboratory was headed by V.A. Dogel. After his departure for Leningrad, his pupil, then Candidate of Biological Sciences, later Doctor of Biological Sciences, presently an Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, E. V. Gvozdev. In 1987, he passed the leadership of the Laboratory to his student, Doctor of Biological Sciences E. V. Sidorov, who headed the Laboratory for about 6 years. The Laboratory staff numbered 22-25 persons.

Initially the Laboratory paid special attention to the study of fish parasites in the Ili river basin and fish parasitic diseases in the Alma-Ata pond farm (A.I. Agapova, E.V. Gvozdev). Later, the parasitofauna of fish was studied in numerous lakes, reservoirs and rivers in Kazakhstan. The results of the study of fish parasites in natural and artificial water bodies (reservoirs) are summarized in the summary of A.I. Agapova “Fish parasites in Kazakhstan” (1966). The accumulated faunistic material allowed giving zoogeographical characteristics of ichthyoparasitofauna of water bodies of Central Kazakhstan (Sidorov, 1966), as well as of all Kazakhstan (Agapova, 1963). Much attention was paid to the study of parasite fauna changes during acclimatization of fish and fish food invertebrates (Gvozdev and Agapova, 1932, 1963; Agapova, 1963). Analysis of the parasitofauna of acclimatized fish allowed tracing the peculiarities of its formation and making practical conclusions. In some cases, the importation of dangerous parasites with introduced fish was prevented. Since the 50’s, much attention has been paid to studying the role of fish in the circulation of the opistorchosis pathogen. Е. V. Sidorov (1960, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967 etc.) has studied the peculiarities of metacercariae distribution in fish of the Republic, has found natural foci of opistorchosis, has worked out recommendations on prevention of this disease.

A study of the helminth fauna of rodents, including the muskrat, showed that these animals are carriers of a number of helminths that parasitize also in farm animals and humans. The parasitofauna of tolai hare and pika of five species was thoroughly studied (Gvozdev, 1948, 1964). The results of studying the helminth fauna of hares are summarized in the “Helminths of hares of the fauna of the USSR” (Gvozdev, Kontrimavichus et al., 1970).

In the 50s, the helminth fauna of wild and domestic fowl was investigated in the Laboratory. The results of this work were summarized in E.V. Gvozdev’s monograph “Parasitic worms of chicken birds of Kazakhstan” (1958). Much attention was given to studying of helminth fauna of wild geese (Maksimova, 1963, 1966, 1967, 1978) and domestic ducks and geese (Belokobylenko, 1963, 1965; Egizbaeva, 1965, 1971, 1975). Since the 1960s, the helminth fauna of fish-eating birds and their role in the spread of helminth infections among fish has been studied in detail (Zhatkanbaeva, 1968, 1971, 1975, etc.).

Much attention was paid to the study of freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, as well as crustaceans, insects and oligochaetes as intermediate hosts of trematodes and cestodes (B.A. Akhmetova, Yu.V. Belyakova, O.V. Dobrohotova, A.P. Maximova, D.Sh. Kukashev, V.Y. Panin, T.N. Soboleva and others). The life cycles of more than 30 species of cestodes and trematodes have been described for the first time by the laboratory staff. The results of these studies were published in the collections “Ecology of parasites of aquatic animals” (1975), “Life cycles, ecology and morphology of helminths of animals of Kazakhstan” (1978), “Parasites – components of aquatic and terrestrial biocenoses of Kazakhstan” (1981).

Over the years, the laboratory staff made a significant contribution to the knowledge of a number of problems of ecological parasitology and natural foci of diseases of humans and farm animals. Results of investigations are summarized in monographs, except mentioned above: “Natural Focality of Opistorchosis” (Sidorov, 1983), three-volume book “Basics of General Helminthology” (Shultz, Gvozdev, 1970-1976), “Separator of helminthes of rodent fauna of Soviet Union” (Ryzhikov, Gvozdev et al, 1978 Part 1; 1979, Part 2), “Trematodes dicroceliides of the world fauna” (Panin, 1984), “Cestodes-hymenolepidae of aquatic birds of Kazakhstan” (Maksimova, 1989).

In recent years, already within the framework of the Laboratory of General Parasitology (headed by D.B.M. Zhatkanbaeva), created on the basis of several previously existing parasitological laboratories, much attention is paid to the study of protozoa and helminthes of fish, amphibians, birds, insectivores, craneflies and ecto- and endoparasites of wild and domestic ungulates, as well as to the clarification of regularities of animal parasitosis foci in places with the greatest anthropogenic impact.

The results of these works are reflected in the monographic summaries “Trematodes echinostomatata” (Gvozdev, Zhatkanbaeva, Belyakova, 2006) of the series “Fauna of Kazakhstan”, “Trematodes of the suborder Brachylaimatata of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan” (Soboleva, Osipovskaya, 2003), the collection “Parasites in biocenoses of Kazakhstan” (1998).

The Laboratory of Helminthology was organized in 1945 on the initiative of Academician K.I. Skryabin. Since its establishment till 1980 the Laboratory was headed by Academician of NAS RK, Prof. S. N. Boev, and from 1980 to 1995 by Dr. E. I. Pryadko, Prof. of Biology. The main direction of the research of the Laboratory was the development of biological basis for control of helminth anthropozoonoses and helminthiasis of farm animals and plants and the study of the ecological bases of formation of natural foci of diseases. V. I. Bondareva, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, V. Y. Panin, B. Shaykenov, K. K. Uvalieva, Candidates of Biological Sciences I. B. Sokolova, I. A. Shol, Z. A. Balbaeva, Z. H. Tazieva, L. I. Lavrov worked in this laboratory for a long time.

Significant successes have been achieved by the laboratory staff in studying the helminth fauna of domestic animals, domesticated and wild ungulates: maral, roe deer, musk deer, argali, Siberian ibex, saiga, gazelle, wild pig; predatory mammals – wolf, jackal, fox, corsac, Arctic fox, polecat, solongoi, mink, ermine, marten, column, badger, sable, weasel, otter, dressing pig; and commercial rodents: marmot, muskrat, squirrel and other rodent-like rodents. As a result of long-term studies, the systematic position of helminth groups: protostrongylids, trichinellids, nematodes, copepods, tenidae has been elucidated; the development cycles of three trichostrongylid species, elaphostrongyl, Orientobilcharia, Eurytrema, 6 dictyocauli species, verticaria and three tenidae species have been studied. The most pathogenic species of parasites causing damage to livestock and the number of wild animals were identified.

Among the works carried out in the early period, studies on the causative agents of pulmonary and gastrointestinal helminthiasis of domestic and wild animals (S.N. Boev) had the greatest practical efficiency. These diseases caused mass deaths of farm animals in the 30-40s of the last century. The development of methods of chemoprophylaxis of strongylatosis using phenothiazine-salt mixture allowed to sharply reduce the incidence of these parasitosis in animals. Published by Academician S. The monographs “Lung nematodes of ungulate animals of Kazakhstan” and “Protostrongylidae, Fundamentals of Nematology, Vol. 25” were translated into English and the book (with co-authors I. B. Sokolova and V. Y. Panin) “Helminths of ungulate animals of Kazakhstan” was widely distributed in the CIS republics and abroad.

Since the mid 1960s, the laboratory has paid special attention to the study of natural foci of helminth infestations. Natural foci of alveolar echinococcosis and trichinellosis, the range of hosts and ways of their transmission to synanthropic biocenoses were identified (S. N. Boev, V. I. Bondareva, I. B. Sokolova, Z. H. Tazieva, B. Sh. Shaykenov), the circulation of several trichinella species in nature has been proved (V. A. Britov, S. R. Boev), genetic independence, ranges, ecological adaptation differences, and genesis of newly described trichinella species has been established (B. Sh. Shaykenov). The published monograph by B. Shaykenov “Biology of trichinellosis and alveolar echinococcosis pathogens” found wide approval among specialists in many countries.

The Laboratory of Helminthology was the organizer and initiator of extensive research on phytohelminthology and malacology. As a result, conducted over 30 years of research on flower, vegetable and grain crops has identified more than 300 species of phytoshelminthes, of which 38 species are plant pathogens (ZA Balbaeva, KU Bazarbekov, KN Nugmanova). Since the 1960s, systematic studies of mollusks in all landscape-climatic zones have also been conducted; their distribution, biology and ecology of mass species have been studied. Based on the results of these studies, the book “Terrestrial Mollusks of Kazakhstan” was published (K. K. Uvalieva) and 16 species of mollusks new to science were described (K. K. Uvalieva, T. S. Rymzhanov). Specially conducted experiments allowed to identify the participation of mollusks in the development cycle of pathogenic helminths (protostrongyl, elaphostrongyl, oriantobilchartia) of agricultural and domesticated ungulates, which allowed to outline the biological basis for the prevention of these helminth infections.

The laboratory of protozoology was established in 1946 by A.A. Tselischev, Doctor of Biological Sciences. For a long time this laboratory was headed by Doctor of Biology S. К. Svanbaev.

Laboratory staff made a significant contribution to the study of hemosporidiosis – blood-parasitic diseases of farm animals. They identified the causative agents of hemosporidiosis, piroplasmosis and nuttaliosis of horses, theileriosis, piroplasmosis, Francailosis of cattle, developed methods of diagnosis and prevention of these diseases (A.A. Tselischev). The spread of anaplasmosis among sheep was studied, as well as ways of transmission to wild ungulates (V.M. Peteshev). Extensive studies were conducted on spirochetosis and blood parasites of wild and domestic birds (M.P. Yakunin, K.K. Kayrullaev). The study of coccidia of domestic and wild animals occupied a special place in the activity of the laboratory of protozoology. Fundamental work was carried out on the study of coccidiosis agents in farm animals (N.P. Orlov, S.K. Svanbaev, A.A. Tsygankov, N.K. Rakhmatullina). Cycles of coccidia development were studied (V.A. Dzerzhinsky). Studies on porcine balanceidiosis and amoebic dysentery in mink were carried out (R.N. Appasov).

The fauna and distribution of coccidia of wild mammals and birds have been comprehensively studied (S.K. Svanbaev, M.K. Utebaeva, K.K. Nukerbaeva). It is established that in Kazakhstan in wild animals are parasitized more than 160 species of coccidia, of which 40 species are described as new to science. The most pathogenic species of coccidia for wild chicken, goose, rodents and predatory mammals were identified. Recommendations for therapy and prevention of nutria coccidiosis have been developed.

The Laboratory of Tissue Protozoa was founded on the initiative of Academician I. G. Galuzo and he remained its permanent Head up to the end of his life. For a long time the Laboratory has been studying toxoplasmosis of wild and domestic animals and bovine bezoids (S. M. Pak, V. F. Novinskaya, A. V. Levit, and V. M. Fedoseenko). The cycles of toxoplasmid development have been thoroughly studied; it has been established that the toxoplasmosis pathogen can inhabit a wide range of hosts. A new effective method for diagnosing toxoplasmosis has been developed.

Since 1977 the Laboratory was headed by Dr. S. M. Pak, follower of I.G. Galuzo. The Laboratory staff included 19 persons, including 17 research workers: Candidates of Biological Sciences A. V. Levit, N. G. Levchenko, V. V. Permenova, A. P. Polomoshnov. For a long time Dr. V. F. Novinskaya, Candidates of Biological Sciences N. A. Bezukladnikova, V. M. Peteshev worked there.

Since 1967 the laboratory under the direction of Dr. S. M. Pak has been intensively engaged in the study of sarcosporidium as an agent of sarcosporidiosis in farm and wild animals. As a result, the development cycles of sarcosporidium specific to a number of animals were deciphered. The results of the studies were published in monographs and summaries: “Diagnosis of animal toxoplasmosis” (Galuzo, Konovalova, 1971), “Life cycle of toxoplasmas” (Galuzo et al., 1971), “Toxoplasmosis of birds in Kazakhstan” (Pak, 1976), etc.

The Laboratory of Parasitic Arthropods dates back to the beginning of the 1940s, when it was called the Laboratory of Arachnoentomology and was created on the initiative of Academician I.G. Galuso. He was also its first Head. For some time this laboratory was headed by Dr. V. Biol. V. Shevchenko, a well-known expert on gadflies, was the head of this laboratory for some time.

Since 1967, the laboratory was headed by T. N. Doszhanov, then Candidate of Biological Sciences, later Doctor of Biological Sciences and then Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Candidates of Biological Sciences G. V. Ushakova (Koshechkina), V. N. Senotrusova, S. A. Somov worked in the laboratory. For a long time Doctor of Biology V. N. Kusov, A. M. Dubitskii, and Candidate of Biology M. S. Shakirzyar worked in the laboratory. The work of M.S. Shakirzyanova, A.V. Levit, J.S. Smatov, and J.K. Kenzhebaev was carried out for a long time.

For a number of years, T.N. Doszhanov conducted thorough studies of bloodsucking flies (Hippoboscidae, Diptera).

The results of these voluminous works are published in a number of fundamental monographs and summaries: “Ticks Ornithodorinae of Central Asia and Kazakhstan” (Kusov, 1973), “Blood-sucking mosquitoes of Kazakhstan” (Dubitsky, 1970), “Blinds of Kazakhstan” (Shevchenko, 1961), “Blood-sucking midges of Kazakhstan” (Shakirzyanova, 1963), “Blood-sucking flies of Kazakhstan” (Doszhanov, 1980), “Blood-sucking flies (Hippoboscidae) of Palearctic” (Doszhanov, 2003), etc.

The Laboratory of Functional Morphology of Invertebrate Animals was organized in 1980 on the basis of the scientific group that had been studying micromorphology and ultrastructure of flatworms and protozoa since the early 1970s.

The head of the laboratory was Doctor of Biology V.Y. Panin. Dr. K. K. Uvalieva, Candidates of Biological Sciences V. M. Fedoseenko, and L. I. Lavrov worked there. The laboratory had 16 staff members, of which 9 were scientists. The main scientific direction of the Laboratory was the study of morphofunctional features of protozoa, as well as of individual tissues and organs of flatworms and mollusks, using the methods of electron microscopy, histology and histochemistry. Much attention was paid to studying the ultrastructure of trematodes and cestodes and revealing peculiarities of the structure of external covers and protective membranes of trematodes. The ultrastructure of cystic forms of besnoides and sarcosporidia was studied.

The fine structure of the intestine of Corridia corrigia trematodes (V.Y. Panin, L.V. Nacheva), the structure of sporocyst tegument and cercaria of Dicrocoelium lanceatum (L.T. Nesterenko, Z. Zhdarska, V.M. Fedoseenko) were thoroughly studied. The ultrastructure of the cuticle and intestinal tube of Orientobilhartii parasitizing in the blood system of cattle was studied (L.I. Lavrov, V.M. Fedoseenko).

The Laboratory closely cooperated with the Institute of Parasitology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. The results of joint studies were published in the journals “Folia parasitologia”, “Parasitology”, “Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Biological Series”.